UGC MINOR RESEARCH PROJECT
1. Name of Principal Investigator
KAKADE NIRMALA RAKHAMAJI
2. Department of PI
3. UGC approval Letter No. and Date
: F. 47-649/13(WRO) Dated 30 May 2014
Short report of the work done
Ayurvedic medicines correct imbalance and strengthen body’s defense
mechanisms by changing lifestyle and diet, then increase the resistance of body to a
disease. While the focus of the conventional medicine is on the elimination of the
causes of disease, herbal and herb mineral products are always used in Ayurveda to
strengthen the body’s defense mechanism. When synthetic antibiotics and steroids are
administered for long time, they have sometimes serious adverse effects like immune
suppression, gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. While ayurvedic therapies are free
from such adverse effects in spite of being administered for long time. Now a day’s
ayurvedic concepts are scientifically supported.
The government of India has approved Ayurveda as an independent medical
system and Ayurvedic education and training is regulated. The Department of Indian
system of medicine and homeopathy
(ISM&H) was generated in
1995 for the
development of education and research in medicine systems and again renamed as
AYUSH in 2003 under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. AYUSH is
abbreviated form of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
Most of the crude drugs obtained from plant materials are usually put in
quarantine store and they remain there for long time. During storage proper ventilation,
suitable temperature, humidity controls and light conditions should be ensured to
maintain their original pharmacological action. However, it is observed that crude plant
materials, before being taken for processing, if not analyzed which can lead to changes
in original characteristics. To avoid this, the leaves powder of
was tested for the following tests as per the Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (IHP) and
1. Foreign organic matter.
2. Ethanol soluble extractives.
3. Water soluble extractives.
4. Total ash contents.
5. Acid insoluble ash.
6. Water soluble ash.
7. Loss on drying.
To identify the phytochemical constituents present in water and ethanol
leaves, a preliminary analysis was done by using different
testing methods of Frothing test, Mayer’s test, Hager’s test, Foam formation test, Lead
acetate test, Molisch’s and Felhing’s test and Ferric Chloride test.
Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse
group of chemical compounds showing large variation in solubility and stability. These
are fixed oils, fats and waxes, tannins, phenols, alkaloids, proteins, glycosides,
carbohydrates, volatile oils, resins and resin combinations. In present study the
phytochemical analysis of plant powder is carried out by using extraction method. The
standard chemical procedure to obtain constituents from dried plant tissues is to
continuously extract powdered material in soxhlet apparatus. The observations of
phytochemical extracts like moderately polar extract of terpenoids and phenolics, basic
extract of alkaloids, polar extract of quaternary alkaloids and n-oxides, neutral extract of
fats and waxes and fibers are used to calculate percent extraction. After the completion
of phytochemical profile of given plant material fractionation of crude extract is
desirable in order to separate the main classes of constituents from each other before
The phytochemicals can be broadly classified as fixed oils, fats and
(lipids), phenols, proteins, Tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides,
volatiles oils, resin and combinations. The precise mode of extraction is dependent on
the tenure and type of the substance isolated. The classical chemical procedure to obtain
constituents from dried plants tissues is to continuously extract powdered material by
Soxhlet apparatus with a range of solvents. The plant material were collected, cleaned,
washed with water and dried in shades. After complete drying they are kept in oven at
C for one week, then powdered and sieved by 80 mesh size sieves. For further
analysis the powder is used. The different steps were used for phytochemical analysis.
Poison is any agent capable of producing a deleterious response in a
biological system which seriously injures function or produces death. Among chemicals
there is a wide spectrum of doses required to produce deleterious effects, serious injury
or death. Some chemicals producing death in microgram doses are extremely
poisonous; while others may be relatively harmless after doses in excess of several
grams. A chemical agent does not produce toxic effects in biological system if that
agent or its metabolic breakdown
(biotransformation) products does not reach
appropriate sites in the body at a concentration and for a length of time, sufficient to
produce a toxic manifestation. The major factors which cause toxicity are the route of
administration, the duration and the frequency of exposure to the chemical agent.
Toxicologists always divide the exposure of animals into Acute toxicity, Sub acute
toxicity, Sub chronic toxicity, Chronic toxicity.
Many herbs have shown positive results in-vitro, animal model or small-
scale clinical tests. While studies on some herbal treatments have found negative
results. Though Datura stramonium is very useful in the treatment for asthma symptoms
due to the presence of atropine in it. It is powerful hallucinogen. But the overdose of
tropane alkaloids in it can cause hospitalization or death
An acute toxicity study was conducted for
of leaves by using mice as the experimental model. The study was carried out to
evaluate the acute toxicity of the decoction of leaves of
The results of proximate analysis of leaves of contains 0.6% foreign organic
matter, 25.0% ethanol soluble extractives, 19.80% water soluble extractives, 11.575%
8.337% Acid insoluble ash, 15.767% Water soluble ash, 5.187% loss on
drying and 1.9% moisture content.
Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonducella
were carried out in this research. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the
presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoides, carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic
compounds and quinine. Saponins were not detected in the ethanol extract. These
constituents present in the leaves extracts have good therapeutic values. Saponins and
have antimicrobial and curative properties against various pathogens.
Flavonoids have antifungal as well as antibacterial activity. They also posses anti-
inflammatory property. Tannins and saponins are known to have antimicrobial
Secondary metabolites of the plants like alkaloids, terpenoids and glycosides
play the role of protective agents against different pathogens like insects, fungi or
bacteria. They also functions as growth regulatory molecules such as hormone like
substances. Consequently, they are used as potential anticancer drugs by direct
cytotoxic activity against cancer cells or by reducing the tumor development process.
The phytochemical analysis study showed the presence of 4.490% terpenoids &
In Pharmaceutical and food industries, terpenes are used as medicines and
flavor enhancer because of their potentials and effectiveness. As antibiotic resistant
bacteria are being increased globally, terpenes are important. The group of terpenoids
exhibits various pharmacological activities like anti-viral, anti-malarial, anti-
inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It also inhibits cholesterol synthesis.
It showed the presence of 0.885% alkaloids and 25.745 % Q. alkaloid & N-oxides.
Alkaloids govern plant growth. Different alkaloids show different medicinal properties
such as Caffeine is stimulant; Codeine is cough medicine and analgesic; Quinidine is
antiarrhythmic; Quinine is antipyretics and antimalarial; Reserpine is antihypertensive
etc. 8.850 % fats and waxes and 60.050% fibers observed in this plant extract. Lipids
are useful in Nutrition and Dietary, Food Science, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints
and varnishes detergents in human society.
In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that the crude ethanolic
and aqueous extracts of
contain saponins, tannins, alkaloids,
flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and quinines. The percentage
of fats and waxes, terpenoids and phenolics, Q. Alkaloid & N - Oxides was observed
good. It showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities. It might be an alternate to
synthetic antibiotics available in the market. So, its beneficial effect on animals as well
as human health may be derived from its antibacterial and antifungal properties to
afford protection against various diseases. The authenticity of this plant can be detected
with the help of the parameters laid down by the findings of the present study.
Preliminary phytochemical and phytochemical analysis reports can be useful to
reinforce and authenticate the drug. To evaluate and investigate the plant in detail, the
present work may be used as a useful supplement.
From the results of this study, it is observed that there is no considerable change
in body weight, food and water consumption by the animals from all dose groups
(2ml/Kg body weight to 10ml/Kg body weight), There was no mortality recorded even
at the highest dose level i.e. 10ml/Kg body weight, which proves that the decoction of
of this plant has no significant toxic effect in mice.
Dr. N. R. Kakade
Dr. R. J. Temkar